This document reports the findings of a review of research on teaching and learning at the Foundation Phase level in South African schools. The focus of the review is on Grades 1, 2 and 3. However, the review’s focus is broadened to the primary level more generally given that there is limited published research at the Foundation Phase level specifically. The review also pays particular attention to the teaching and learning of language and mathematics. As a background document to the ‘Building evidence for policy making: Using available datasets to identify underlying causes of poor learner performance in Foundation Phase literacy and numeracy’ Project, the purpose of the review is to draw together findings relevant to the Foundation Phase, and identify critical factors that have been shown to describe teaching and learning at this level, and factors that impact on teaching, learning and student performance at this level.