The framework presented in this guidance note is intended to be used in a flexible manner depending on the purpose and characteristics of the research project. Chapter 2 identifies three items to put in place to lay the foundations for your monitoring and evaluation framework: developing or reviewing your theory of change; identifying the purpose of your evaluation; and understanding your knowledge roles and functions. Chapter 3 guides you through the development of a framework and is structured around six areas: 1) strategy and direction; 2) management; 3) outputs; 4) uptake; and 5) outcomes and impact 6) context. Each area is considered with focus on three operational steps. Case studies are used throughout the guidance note to provide examples of how the framework has been used by research teams.